Abstract: The use of chemical fertilizers (e.g. urea, calcium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, diammonium phosphate etc.) have a great importance for the world’s food production as it works as a fast food for plants causing them to grow more rapidly and efficiently. While adverse effects are being noticed due to the excessive and imbalanced use of these synthetic inputs. Moreover, persistent use of conventional chemical fertilizers subverts the soil ecology, disrupt environment, degrade soil fertility and consequently shows harmful effects on human health and contaminates ground water. For these reasons, biofertilizers, the organic substances, which make use of microorganisms to increase the fertility of soil, has been identified as harmless input help in safeguarding the soil health and also the quality of crop products. Biofertilizers add nutrients through the natural processes of nitrogen fixation, solubilising phosphorus, and stimulating plant growth through the synthesis of growth promoting substances. They are also environment friendly and responsible for continuous availability of nutrients from natural sources. This paper will review the facts and observations regarding biofertilizers, types and their potential for crop production based on relevant literature and research work carried out by many researchers.
Keywords: Nutrients, Chemical fertilizers, Biofertilizers, Microorganisms, Growth promoting substances.