Abstract: Sustainable wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are being widely used nowadays due to two key driving technologies behind them i.e. energy harvesting and energy management. Energy harvesting from environmental energy sources such as solar, wind, thermal, mechanical and so forth are introduced from the perspective of energy supply to the WSN, while energy management of WSN such as the design of MAC protocol, design of routing protocol, and dynamic power management technology are presented from the perspective of energy conservation within the WSN itself. The suitability of super capacitors to expand the safe operating window of a wind-membrane system was examined in a systematic manner. The super capacitors were able to provide sufficient energy during periods of no wind (intermittency) and enhance the power quality delivered to the membrane by absorbing turbulent wind (fluctuations). Remote devices, such as sensors and communications devices, require continuously available power. In many applications, conventional approaches are too expensive, too large or unreliable.

Keywords: Wind turbine, power conversion, renewable energy, Wireless sensor network.