Abstract: This paper describes a prototype of a wireless sensor network developed for tracking pilgrims in the Holy areas during Hajj (Pilgrimage). A delay tolerant network principle is used. Energy efficiency, robustness, and reliability are the key factors for the developed system. Every pilgrim will be given a mobile sensor unit that includes a GPS unit, a Microcontroller, antennas and a battery. A network of fixed master units is installed in the Holy area. Upon request or periodically, the sensor unit sends its UID number, latitude, longitude, and time. The close by master unit receives this information and passes it to a server that maps the latitude and longitude information on a Google map or any geographical information system. The developed system can be used to track specific pilgrims. Alternatively any pilgrim can request emergency help using the same system. The location of the person needing help will be identified on the map to make it easy for the help to reach in the most efficient way. The developed system works in coordination with an RFID identification system that was proposed earlier. The developed system was tested successfully during the recent pilgrim season.
Keywords: WSN, Pilgrims Tracking, Hajj season, Pilgrimage, GPS, RFID.